CONTENTS, AUTHORS, ABSTRACTS
V. Borisov Gulyashshie Lyudi and Other Social Groups Exempted from Paying Tyaglo behind the Urals in 17th century
Victor E. Borisov – Candidate of History, Lecturer, Department of Medieval and Early Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article analyses the documents of Verhoturie uyezd prikaznaya izba (uyezd government body) devoted to social groups exempted from paying tyaglo (the main direct tax tî the state), who lived in Irbitskaya sloboda (settlement), one of Siberian settlements, in the 17th century. It studies the economic situation of these netyaglyy (tax-exempt) groups. The changes in their quantity and the duration of residence in one place have been investigated for the first time. It was found out that – contrary to the authoritative opinion of historian A.A. Preobrazhenskiy – the quantity of gulyashshie lyudi (homeless wanderers) engaged into day-work significantly decreased in the 17th century. On the other hand, new groups of netyaglyy (tax-exempt) people appeared in the last quarter of the century, such as bobyls (landless peasants) and others. They had small sedentary households, but they were not members of tyaglaya obshshina (taxed community).
Medieval Russia, 17th century, social structure, Siberia, Verkhoturie uyezd, Irbitskaya sloboda (settlement), tyaglaya obshshina (taxed community), tyaglo (the main direct tax tî the state), netyaglyy (tax-exempt), gulyashshie lyudi (pl. homeless wanderers), bobyls (pl. landless peasants), A.A. Preobrazhenskiy
S. Ippolitov, V. Minaev “The Entire Fate of Russia Depends on it”: On the Demographic and Economic Expansion of China and Japan in the East of Russia during Second Russian Smuta
Sergey S. Ippolitov – Candidate of History, Director of the Publishing Center of RSUH
Valeriy V. Minaev – Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of Department of World Politics and International Relations, RSUH
The article studies the demographic and economic situation in Siberia and Russia’s Far East during the Civil War on the basis of archival documents, with the main focus being made on the demographic, financial and trade expansion of China and Japan in this region. Attention is paid to labour migration and refugees as well as the demographic and economic policies of Provisional Siberian Government and Admiral Kolchak’s Russian Government in 1918–1919 seeking to counteract this expansion. It is concluded that China’s and Japan’s successful expansion in this area were conditioned by low population density, poorly developed industry and railways as well as the corruption of local authorities.
Russian Civil War, Siberia, Russian Far East, Provisional Siberian Government, A.V. Kolchak’s Russian Government, demographic policy, economic policy, resettlement, refugee, China, Japan, demographic expansion, economic expansion
T. Troshina “We’d Rather not be Captured by the Poles”: “The March off the Vistula” and German Camps in the Memories of the Red Army’s Soldiers, Political Workers and Commanders
Tatyana I. Troshina – Doctor of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Work ans Social Security, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (Arkhangelsk)
The article covers the events of the Soviet-Polish war of 1920. It is based on unique personal sources: unpublished reminiscences of Red Army’s military staff and inhabitants of the Archangelsk region. The author narrates the battles against the Polish Army, the defeat of the troops of the Soviet Western Front near Warsaw, and the internment of Red Army’s parts in Germany. It is the first effort in national historical science to reveal the frontline and camp routine of Red Army’s men giving a profound insight into their perception of the tragic events, their attitudes to Polish and German authorities and armed forces as well as to Polish, Jewish and German population.
Soviet-Polish War of 1920, Red Army, Polish Army, Warsaw battle of 1920, Poland, Germany, Eastern Prussia, Red Army man, internment, internment camp, everyday life, memories
E. Kirillova Housing Cooperatives in Petrograd in the early 1920s: Organization, Structure and the “Class Line” of the City Authorities
Elena A. Kirillova – Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Faculty of Social Sciences, Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University (St. Petersburg)
The article based on archival documents examines zhiltovarishchestvo (housing cooperative) as a form of self-government of the municipal dwellings in the early 1920s, with reference to Petrograd (Leningrad). Special attention is given to the organization of housing cooperatives and the order of formation of their boards. The author also considers the measures taken by Bolshevik and Soviet municipal authorities to ensure that the leading role on the boards should be played by the workers. It concludes that the administration of the municipal services of Petrograd (Leningrad) had to put up with the prevalence of “non-proletarian elements” on the boards of housing cooperatives because they, unlike the workers, had both experience in management and business activities and a will to manage house economy.
Petrograd (Leningrad), municipal economy, Department of municipal economy, Housing department, municipal housing, zhiltovarishchestvo (housing cooperative), house economy
Contemporary Russia and Post-Soviet States
International Round Table “Russia and Post-Soviet Space: Problems and Prospects”. The proceedings were prepared for publication by P. Marchenya, S. Razin.
Pavel P. Marchenya – Candidate of History, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of Department of Philosophy, Moscow University of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia
Sergey Yu. Razin – Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Sciences, Institute for the Humanities and Arts and Informational Technologies
The proceedings of the International round table held in Moscow in April 2013 include the papers by Russian and foreign experts researching the past and the present of the post-Soviet space as well as part of their discussion. The papers feature the interdisciplinary scientific analysis of different aspects of contemporary geopolitical situation in post-Soviet space. These issues were addressed in the context of Eurasian and global history.
Russian Federation, Post-Soviet space, Post-Soviet states, geopolotics, integration, Commonwealth of Independent States, Union State of Russia and Belarus, Eurasian Economic Union, Customs Union, empire, nation, political elite
Landmarks in Human History
E. Kodin Nikolay Troitskiy: From the Simbirsk Insurgent to the Director of the Munich Institute for the Study of the USSR
Evgeniy V. Kodin – Doctor of History, Professor, Department of history of Russia, Rector of Smolensk State University
The article examines N.A. Troitskiy’s (1903 – 2011) life and public work in the historical context of “the second wave” of Russian emigration. The main attention is paid to the turning and most tragic points of his biography: his arrest in 1937, the German captivity in 1941–1943, participation in the Russian Liberation Movement led by general A.A.Vlasov, anti-communist activity in post-war Europe, the foundation of the Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (SBONR), and emigration to the USA. His directorship at the Munich Institute for the Study of the USSR in 1950–1955 became the brightest and most significant period in his life. Thanks to N.A.Troitskiy’s and his emigrant colleagues’ efforts this institute became the leading European center of sovietology during the hardest period of Cold War.
N.A. Troitskiy, World War II, Cold War, anti-Bolshevist emigration, “second wave” of Russian emigration, Russian Liberation Movement, A.A.Vlasov, Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (SBONR), Munich Institute for the Study of the USSR, Germany, USA, Munich, Sovietology