A. Astashov Self-mutilation and Sham Illnesses in the Russian Army during the World War I

Alexander B. Astashov Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of the Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives, RSUH

This article based on documents from the Russian State Military History archive and special medical literature looks into self-mutilation and sham illnesses in the Russian army in the World War I, focusing on their scale, forms and development as well as the methods used to combat these violations of military discipline. It is concluded that the command, military justice, and military medicine were unable to deal with these ways of mass avoidance of military service. It was caused by insufficient technical facilities, weak medical expertise, and a lack of legal and organizational means.

World War I, Russian army, military personnel, military discipline, self-mutilation, sham illness, military justice, military medicine

E. Kirillova All Must Be Fired Immediately: Optants in Soviet Civil Service (from the history of municipal economy of Petrograd in the early 1920s)

Elena A. Kirillova Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian History, Faculty of Social Sciences, Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University (Saint-Petersburg)

The article based on previously unknown archival documents investigates the measures of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd (Leningrad) Provincial Soviet against optants who lived in Petrograd and Petrograd province in the early 1920s. Particular attention is paid to actions taken by the Administration Department of the Petrograd Executive Committee aimed at the dismissal of the optants working in the Department of municipal economy, as well as the anti-optants campaign in the Petrograd Soviet press. It is concluded that these activities were designed to purge public institutions from the optants who were to be deported from Soviet Russia (USSR).

Petrograd (Leningrad), Petrograd (Leningrad) province, Executive Committee of Petrograd (Leningrad) Provincial Soviet, municipal economy, optant, personnel purge, campaign in the press

A. Kryzhan A Common Citizen and Soviet Justice: On the Use of Political Demagogy in Daily Communication with the Authorities (Kursk Province, 1920s)

Anna V. Kryzhan Candidate of History, Department of the Humanities, Regional Open Social Institute (Kursk)

This article examines some obscure facts from archival documents about the relationship between rank-and-file citizens and judicial authorities during the first decade of the Soviet power. It focuses on all sorts of demagogy and revolutionary slogans used by the inhabitants of the Kursk province as an instrument to achieve their private purposes in communication with the local government. The conclusion goes that in the early 1920s the revolutionary slogans that would be imposed on the masses caused the effect of a boomerang: the citizens took to revolutionary demagogy when dealing with central and local Soviet bodies, particularly with judicial authorities. It turned out to be a means for the justification of their selfish and illegal actions being presented as if complying with appropriate Bolshevist ideas.

Kursk province, Soviet power, local government, judicial body, organs of justice, common citizen, every-day life, political demagogy

Anti-Bolshevik Russia

D. Ispovednikov Intelligence Operations of Irkutsk Military Districts Headquarters in Russias Far East Borderline Areas

Dmitriy Yu. Ispovednikov Postgraduate Student, Department of Archeography, Institute for History and Archives, RSUH

Based on previously unknown documents of the Intelligence department of Irkutsk Military Districts headquarters from the Russian State Military Archive, the article is the first attempt in the Russian historiography to analyze the activities of the White Guard intelligence service in Russias Far East during the Civil War. Particular attention is paid to the Intelligence departments structure and its agent networks in the borderline areas in Mongolia and Uraanhai Krai (Tannu Uriankhai). It is concluded that the intelligence service was quite viable, despite the shortage of human and financial resources. However, the work in what the Intelligence department considered its prioriry areas turned out to be ineffective in the conditions of the Civil War. It is mentioned that the obtained intelligence data about the Far Eastern borderlands were used by the Soviet state after the war.

Civil war in Russia, Far East, Irkutsk Military District, military district headquarters, intelligence, agents, intelligence data, Mongolia, Uraanhai Krai (Tannu Uriankhai)

Landmarks in Human History

L. Taimasova Secrets of the Livonian War: Duke Magnus of Holstein, the Muscovy Company and English smuggling operations across the Russian little window to Europe

Liudmila Ju. Taimasova Intern, European Division, Library of Congress (USA), Writer

The article based on sources of little renown examines the role of England in the repartition of spheres of influence in the Baltic region during the Livonian War. Attention is paid to the activities of the English Muscovy Company smuggling English arms across the Strait of Oresund and Narva to the countries in the Baltic region. The author focuses on the plan of Tsar Ivan the Terrible to establish the Kingdom of Livonia with Duke Magnus of Holstein at the head, in the context of the diplomatic war for Livonia. It is also revealed that there is a direct relation between the intention of the Muscovy Company to transfer its trade operations from Narva to Revel and Riga and Russias claim for these cities. It is concluded that the secret English arms deliveries to the countries participating in the Livonian War through Narva contributed to the positioning of England as a major sea power.

Livonian War, Ivan the Terrible, Duke Magnus of Holstein, Muscovy, England, Denmark, Sweden, Rzeczpospolita, Muscovy Company, Narva, Revel, Riga, maritime commerce, smuggling, arms supplies

Book Reviews

M. Shuhkova On the Study of State Management in Turkhestan Krai at the beginning of XX century

Margarita E. Shushkova Lecturer, Department of the Humanities, Social and Economic Disciplines, RSUH Affiliate in Zheleznodorozhny (Moscow oblast)

The article analyzes the monograph by E.A. Gluschenko Russia in Central Asia: conquests and transformations (Moscow, 2010), covering in detail the accession of Central Asia to the Russian Empire and the formation of Turkestan Krai, based on a broad range of sources. The article offers an assessment of the authors analysis of state management in Turkestan Krai and the colonization of this national periphery, as well as the life of the indigenous Muslim population, and its relationships with Russian authorities. It is concluded that E.A. Glushchenkos monograph is an important step in the study of historical destinies of the peoples in Central Asia and of Russian experience in the state management of Turkestan Krai.

E.A. Gluschenko, historiography, Central Asia, Islam, colonization, Turkestan Krai, state management

S. Voytikov Book Review: Kiknadze V.G.Invisible War Front at Sea: The Naval Radio-Electronic Intelligence in the first half of the XX century. Moscow, 2011.

Sergey S. Voytikov andidate of History, Chief Scientific Researcher, Moscow Chief Archival Department

K. Aleksandrov A new book about Russian military emigration during the World War II

Kirill M. Aleksandrov Candidate of History, Senior Researcher, Encyclopedic Department, Philological Faculty, Saint-Petersburg State University

The article is a review of the book Fatal Separation: Russian Military Emigration during the World War II on the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia (Moscow, 2012) by K.L. Kotyukov. The book is analyzed in the context of the recent practices of studying Russian anti-Bolshevik emigration during the World War II. The author of the article discusses the books pros and cons, the correctness of the description of the historical events, sources and literature used, conclusions and results of the research and issues which were not covered in the book.

K.L. Kotyukov, historiography, World War II, Russian emigration, Yugoslavia, Russian Corps, collaboration

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