CONTENTS, AUTHORS, ABSTRACTS
V. Uspensky From the History of Russian-Chinese Relations in the XVII c. (An
Analysis of Documents in the Mongolian Language)
Vladimir L. Uspensky – Doctor of History, Professor, Chair of Mongolian and Tibetan Studies, Department of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg State University
The article is the first examination of two unique documents written in Mongolian which refer to Russian-Chinese relations in the seventeenth century. These are two “Imperial edicts” presented to the Russian Czar in 1655 and 1670, the facsimile edition of both documents seeing the light in China in 2007. The author pays particular attention to adequate interpretation and precise translation into Russian of the documents. The “edict”, dated 1670, had been hitherto known only through an old Russian “list”, thus the discovery of its Mongolian original contributes to a better understanding of the Qing Empire’s policy towards Russia. The author concludes that the Mongolian-language documents are valuable historical sources for the study of Russian-Chinese relations in XVII c.
Russia, China, Muscovy, Qing Empire, Russian-Chinese relations, Siberia, Manchuria
V. Tepkeev On the Appearance of the First Christened Kalmyks in
Moscow in the middle of XVII c.
Vladimir T. Tepkeev – Candidate of History, Senior Researcher, Department of History and Archaeology, Kalmyk Institute for Humanities of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article based on new archival materials deals with the first instances of the Kalmyks converting to Christianity in Moscow in the XVII c. The author focuses on the policy of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich’s government towards the Kalmyks, bringing them into alliance with Russia in the conditions of military operations against the Rzeczpospolita and the Crimean khanate. The strengthening of Russian-Kalmyk relations as well as the internal struggle for power in the Kalmyk community contributed to the baptizing of the Kalmyks, who for various reasons had to live in Moscow at that time.
Muscovy, Moscow, Alexei Mikhailovich, Kalmyks, Russian-Kalmyk relations, Christened Kalmyks, Ñhristianization
N. Tsyrempilov Buddhist Vanguard: Transformations of Buryat Buddhist
Sangha in Russia (XVIII – the beginning of XX cc.)
Nikolay V. Tsyrempilov – Candidate of History, Senior Researcher, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist, and Tibetan Studies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Based on the hitherto unknown Mongol and Tibetan manuscripts and documents from the Russian State Historical Archives, the article is the first attempt in the Russian historiography to reveal the transformation of the Buddhist institutes in the Russian Empire. Special attention is paid to the establishment and development of the administrative system of the Buddhist community and the transformation of Buddhist political conceptions in the Buddhist sangha. The author makes the conclusion that Buriat-Mongolian Buddhists were able to elaborate a model of interaction with a European state as well as to translate it to Mongolia and Tibet.
Buddhism, Russian Empire, Siberia, Buriat-Mongols, sangha, ethnic identity, religious identity
A. Zorin The Tibetan Collection at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the
Russian Academy of Sciences: On the History of its Formation and Cataloguing (1720 – 1917)
Alexander V. Zorin – Candidate of Philology, Researcher, Department of Manuscripts and Documents, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg)
The article is based on little-known documents from the Orientalists’ Archives at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (IOM), RAS, concerning the process of formation and cataloguing of one of the world’s biggest collections of manuscripts and xylograph (block print)books in the Tibetan language dating from 1720 up to late 1917, the emphasis being done on the sources of acquisition, the personalities of the major book collectors, such as Baron P.L. Schilling von Canstatt, the expeditions by some Russian scholars and explorers, such as G.Ts. Tsybikov, B.B. Baradijn, P.K. Kozlov. The author, however, points at the fragmentary character of the documentation in question which makes it hard to arrive at the complete and clear picture of how the Tibetan collection of the Museum of Asia (now The Institute of Manuscripts) was formed. The author concludes that by the mid-1910s this collection had already been a unique corpus on Tibetan Buddhism drawing the attention of both Russian and foreign academics. It contained complete sets of the Tibetan Buddhist Canon, collected works of many important Tibetan authors and, moreover, some ancient and rare texts, such as manuscripts from Dunhuang and Khara-Khoto.
Museum of Asia, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (IOM) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tibetan manuscript, block print, Buddhist literature, book collection, numbering of books, cataloguing, P.L. Schilling von Canstatt, G.Ts. Tsybikov, B.B. Baradijn, P.K. Kozlov
I. Garri The Tibetan Temple of Jokhang: The Past and the Present
Irina R. Garri – Doctor of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Philosophy, Cultural and Religious Studies, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article refers to different sources and the author’s personal impressions to cover the history and the present state of Jokhang, the main Lhasa Buddhist temple. It describes its most important statues including its central sacred image of Jo Shakyamuni Buddha. It concludes that Jowo Shakyamuni is not only the most venerated statue of the temple but also of the whole Tibet as it is traditionally believed to be created during Buddha’s life and to be the real embodiment of the founder of Buddhism.
Buddhism, Tibet, Lhasa, Jokhang, Jo Shakyamuni Buddha
M. Polovnikova The Vyatka Ârotherhood of St. Nicholas (the end of XIX – the
beginning of XX cc.)
Marina Yu. Polovnikova – Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Vyatka State University
The article which is based on documents from the State Archives of the Kirov region covers the activities of the Vyatka Brotherhood of St. Nicholas established by Stephan Kashmensky in 1882. Particular attention is paid to the struggle against “dissenters”, as well as the missionary, religious and educational activities carried out among the local population of the province. The author dwells on the creation and the activities of missionary schools of the Vyatka Brotherhood arriving at the conclusion that the Vyatka Brotherhood has facilitated the consolidation of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Vyatka province.
Vyatka province, Russian Orthodox Church, Vyatka eparchy, Vyatka Brotherhood of St. Nikolas, missionary work, “dissent”, S. Kashmensky
E. Tsydenov The Rite of Initiation into a Shaman in the city of Ulan-Ude:
Traditions and Modernity
Enkhe M. Tsydenov – Postgraduate student, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article based on the author’s field research deals with the modern rite of initiation into a shaman in Ulan-Ude setting a precedent in the national historiography. The author focuses on the peculiarities of the rite, its similarities and differences with other rituals practiced before the October revolution of 1917 and nowadays in the Trans-Baikal krai. It is concluded that the contemporary rite of initiation into the shaman follows the Khori-Buryat version which appears as the most intact one.
Trans-Baikal krai, Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, Buryats, Shamanism, shaman, rite, initiation into shaman
L. Molchanov The Uraanhai Krai under the Protectorate of Anti-Bolshevik
Governments of Siberia (1918 – 1919)
Leonid A. Molchanov – Doctor of History, Professor, Department of Source Studies, Institute for History and Archives of the RSUH
The article is devoted to the Civil war waged on the territory of the Uraanhai krai (Tuva), which was under Russia’s protectorate. The author highlights the struggle for the control over the krai by the government of Admiral A.V. Kolchak, as well as by the Chinese and Mongolian authorities. It is stated that Kolchak’s government was preparing an administrative reform in the Uraanhai krai to the end of strengthening the Russian protectorate which was derailed by such factors as the aggravation of the economic crisis, the defeat of Kolchak’s troops at the front, the intervention of the Mongolian and Chinese troops in the internal affairs of the krai, the wide spreading of the Bolshevik insurgent movement, and the aggravated ethnic contradictions.
Russian Civil War, Siberia, Uraanhai krai (Tuva), Uryankhay (Tuvinians), Buddhist Church, Tuvinian officials, A.V. Kolchak, China, Mongolia
V. Kokoulin “The young and the old alike profiteer on whatever is
available”: The Town Markets in the “White” Siberia (1918 – 1919)
Vladislav G. Kokoulin – Doctor of History, Senior Lecturer, Professor, Siberian Institute of Political History (Novosibirsk)
The article referring to Siberia’s periodical press of 1918–1919 for the first time in the national historiography analyses the situation on the consumer market and the common market practices of the townspeople in Siberia, with the emphasis on free trade and entrepreneurship. It is revealed that the Siberian anti-Bolshevik governments were unable to regulate commodity-money circulation in the interests of the population, to overcome trade deficits, inflation and speculation which caused the massive involvement of Siberian townspeople in the profiteering on food products and manufactured goods, some of them doing it for the sake of sheer profit while the others trying to physically survive.
Russian Civil War, Siberia, free trade policy, commodity-money circulation, everyday life, town market, speculation, periodical press
Landmarks in Human History
M. Krotova General V.N. Kasatkin: Unknown Pages of His Life in Harbin
Mariya V. Krotova – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of History and Political Science, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance
The article based on unknown archival documents and also on V.N. Kasatkin’s unpublished memoirs looks at unknown episodes of his biography. The main focus is on the period of his emigrant life in Manchuria, in Harbin, that was hushed up in his memoirs, particularly,his unsuccessful attempt to get the Soviet citizenship and his service at the Japanese War Mission in Manchukuo. It concludes that the former general of Russian and Kolchak’s armies, like many other emigrants in Manchuria, was ready to adopt Soviet citizenship for the sake of survival. Moreover, Kasatkin began to do military service for the militaristic Japan.
V.N. Kasatkin, White Movement, Siberia, A.V. Kolchak’s government, Russian emigration, Manchuria, Harbin, USSR consulate, Manchukuo, Japan
F. Taratorkin Siberian Writer G.M. Markov: His Life, Books and Personal
Filipp G. Taratorkin – Candidate of History, Assistant Professor, Department of the Medieval and Early Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of the RSUH
The article analyzes the documentary materials belonging to the personal archival fund of Georgy Ì. Markov (1911–1991), the writer and public figure, which were transferred to the state storage in the Scientific library of Tomsk state university. The main attention is paid to the landmarks in his biography and the writer’s literary heritage, and to some interesting and controversial pages from the history of Soviet literature. The conclusion is made about the uniqueness of the documentary materials from G.M. Markov’s personal archive as historical sources for the study of his literary heritage and the history of Soviet literature.
G.M. Markov, Siberia, Tomsk, Tomsk State University, Soviet literature, Writer’s Union of the USSR, personal archival fund