A. EreminUnprecedented Blackmail in Russia: An Incident at the Graduation Exams in the Orel Boys Gymnasium (1899)

Alexander I. Eremin Candidate of History, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Source Studies, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH

This article deals with the procedure of graduation exams in the Russian gymnasiums at the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries. It is based on previously unknown archival documents. The scandal at the graduation exams in the Orel Boys Gymnasium in 1899 is thoroughly analyzed. The main focus is given to everyday relationships between gymnasium students, teaching staff and the gymnasiums administration. Also the bureaucratic mechanism of activities of the Ministry of Public Educations institutions is examined. The article concludes that the state system of gymnasium graduation exams strongly influenced the mentality and behavior of the gymnasium students.

Orel Boys Gymnasium, Ministry of Public Education, teaching staff, gymnasium student, graduation exam, everyday life, mentality, motive of behavior

V. Agapov In Alliance with the Advanced Nations: The Beginning of the World War I in the Liberal Mirror of Vestnik Evropy (1914 1915)

Vadim L. Agapov Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communications, Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok)

This article deals with the journalism of the Russian liberal journal Vestnik Evropy (Bulletin of Europe) at the beginning of World War I. It analyzes the themes and content of the journals articles, the relation of the leading publicists of the journal to matters of domestic and foreign policy, and to the problems of war and peace in 1914 to the first half of 1915. It focuses on the discussion of the origins of the war, the creation of the enemys image, the theme of unity between the society and the government. It concludes that at the beginning of the war the journals publicists maintained the position of defensism. They hoped that a military alliance with the Western democracies against monarchy would create the possibility of liberalizing the Russian political system.

World War I, Vestnik Evropy (Bulletin of Europe), journalism, Entente, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russian autocracy, liberalism, public opinion, K.K. Arsenev, M.M. Kovalevsky

M. Belov S.M. Budenny in 1917: Myth and Reality

Mikhail Yu. Belov postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Faculty of Social Sciences, Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University (Saint-Petersburg)

The article, based on previously unknown archival documents, investigates Budennys service in the Caucasian Cavalry Division in 1917. Special attention is given to the elucidation of his participation in the work of the Army Committees, M.V. Frunzes influence on him, his role in the suppression of the Kornilov revolt and in the October revolution. It concludes that Budenny discharged daily military functions only and did not lead any revolutionary work. He became a Bolshevik supporter only after the October revolution.

S.M. Budenny, Russian army, Caucasian Cavalry Division, Army Committees, Kornilov revolt, October revolution of 1917, Bolsheviks, M.V. Frunze


P. Galkin The Russian Experience of the Administrative Supervision over the Municipal Self-Government (1870s)

Pavel V. Galkin Candidate of History, Head of the Department of Municipal Administration and Social Service, Moscow State Oblast Socio-Humanitarian Institute (Kolomna city, Moscow oblast)

This article is based on previously unknown archival documents. It analyzes the experience of administrative supervision by the Moscow provincial authority over the Podolsk municipal public self-government in the 1870s. Main attention is given to the attempts of the Moscow governors P.P. Durnovo and V.S. Perfilyev to impose disciplinary action against the Podolsk mayor F.S. Dobrotvorsky. It concludes that the Municipal reform of the 1870s created complex, but in some cases insufficiently effective mechanisms of administrative supervision over municipal self-government. The formalism of the administrative supervision prevented the establishment of cooperation between the provincial authority and the municipal self-government.

Moscow province, Podolsk city, Municipal reform of 1870, governor, Municipal self-government, Municipal Duma (Council), mayor, administrative supervision, Senate, P.P. Durnovo, V.S. Perfilyev, F.S. Dobrotvorsky

Anti-Bolshevik Russia

G. Ioffe The Brothers Maklakov

Genrikh Z. Ioffe Doctor of History, Associate Editor, Novyi Zhurnal (New York)

This new work of the well-known historian covers the tragic destinies of two brothers the Russian minister of internal affairs N.A. Maklakov (18711918) and the popular lawyer and liberal V.A. Maklakov (18691957). The author considers their differences in political views, their official and public activities, their roles in the socio-political life of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, and their struggle against the Bolshevik dictatorship. The author focuses on minister N.A. Maklakovs attempts to preserve the autocracy in Russia and lawyer V.A. Maklakovs liberal reforming activity of the Russian political system.

N.A. Maklakov, V.A. Maklakov, Russian autocracy, The Beilis Case, liberalism, February revolution of 1917, October revolution of 1917, Bolshevik dictatorship, Red terror, anti-Bolshevik emigration

A. Bykov Doctor S.F. Gortalov and his Patient U.S. Ambassador D.R. Francis

Alexander V. Bykov Candidate of History, Director, Museum of Diplomatic Corps (Vologda)

This article is based on previously unpublished materials, it is devoted to the fate of a Vologda medical doctor, S.F. Gortalov. The major focus of the article relates to the doctors successful treatment of the U.S. Ambassador to Russia, D.R. Francis. The ambassador fell sick during the time of the Entente embassies stay in Vologda in 1918. Another focus of the article is the political mood of doctor Gortalov and the old Vologda intelligentsia in the 1920s and 1930s, and the activities of the Bolshevik secret police. The Vologda doctors case, which occurred in 1937, is also mentioned. It concludes that the old Vologda intelligentsia had been ideological opponents of the Bolshevik party for two decades. As a result, they were repressed during the times of the Great Terror.

S.F. Gortalov, D.R. Francis, Vologda, Vologda province, Russian Civil War, Entente, diplomatic corps, U.S. Embassy, medical history, medical establishment, Cheka (All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Speculation, and Sabotage), OGPU (Unified State Political Department), NKVD (Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs), Great Terror

Landmarks in Human History

L. Taimasova Secret Marriage of Tsar Vasiliy Shuyskiy and Son of His Daughter

Liudmila Ju. Taimasova Intern, European Division, Library of Congress (USA), Writer, Member of Writers Union of Russia

The article proposes a hypothesis, based on numerous sources, that Tsar Vasiliy Shuyskiy was married to two sisters. Both women had the same name: Maria Buynosova-Rostovskaya. Aside from the two wives, in the harem of Tsar there were two mistresses. From the four women the Tsar had five children, three of which, a girl and two boys, reached adulthood. A lot of attention is given to the grandson of the Tsar (son of his daughter) and his two sons that were born out of wedlock, as well as the role of rulers of Rzeczpospolita in their destinies. A conclusion is made that Russian imposture during the time of first Romanovs presented itself as a unique form of Kremlin internal power struggle.

Muscovy, Time of Troubles, V.I. Shuyskiy, M.F. Romanov, boyar opposition, imposture, Rzeczpospolita

History on Screen

V. Khokhlov Film Once Upon a Time There Lived a Simple Woman Cinematographic Image of Tambov Rebellion

Victor A. Khokhlov Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Contemporary History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH

This article analyzes the historical film Once Upon a Time There Lived a Simple Woman (2011) directed by A. Smirnov. It focuses on the transformation of the cinematographic image of the Russian Civil War and, particularly, the image of the Tambov Rebellion (19201921), which was presented on screen for the first time. It concludes that this cinematographic image is historically accurate, but it is unlikely that the film will strongly influence the historical consciousness of Russians.

Film Once Upon a Time There Lived a Simple Woman, A. Smirnov, Russian Civil War, Tambov uprising, peasantry, Red terror, cinematographic image, historical memory

Book Reviews

K. Mogilevsky Book Review: Solovyov K.A. Legislative and Executive Powers in Russia: Mechanisms of Interaction (1906 1914). Moscow, 2011.

Konstantin I. Mogilevsky Candidate of History, Chief referent, Apparat of the faction Edinaya Rossiya (United Russia) in the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation

N. Kats History without Heroes: A New Work on the History of Stalinism

Naum G. Kats Professor, Departments of History and Modern Languages, Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, USA)

In this review, the author analyzes a new monograph by the American historian, Wendy Z. Goldman, Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia (N.Y, 2011). The monograph is a highly significant contribution to the American historiography on Stalinism. Based on previously unknown archival documents, W. Goldman employs a rigorously scientific approach to the analysis of these materials. The review highlights W. Goldmans research on the significant changes in Soviet political culture and society that took place under the influence and pressures of the Great terror.

W. Goldman, historiography, Stalinism, Bolshevik party, Great Terror, denunciation, political culture, mentality, motive of behavior

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