CONTENTS, AUTHORS, SUMMARIES
E. Smirnova Public Alms Councils and Public Health in Russia (the end of
1700’s – mid 1800’s)
Elena M. Smirnova – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of History and Philosophy, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy
On the basis of the archival sources and the official documents the article studies the role of the Public Alms Councils in the development of public health in Russia in the end of 1700’s – mid 1800’s. The investigation is focused on the Public Alms Councils activities and in particular on the place the above activities occupied in the organization of the medical aid to the population (mainly Yaroslavl province is taken as an example). The competence and responsibility limits in hospital management have also been studied. It is concluded the Public Alms Councils were functioning under the strict supervision of Ministry of Home Affairs, the mainstream of their activities was conducted in the financial sphere and the role in the organization of hospital business had been limited to the solution of the financial and administrative-and-household issues.
Public Alms Council, Ministry of the Interior, public health, hospital business, administrative-and-household management, Yaroslavl province
T. Troshina Public Drunkenness in the European North of Russia in “The
Epoch of Wars and Revolutions”
Tatyana I. Troshina – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Arkhangelsk)
On the basis of archival and literary sources this article studies the common public drunkenness in the European North of Russia during the Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War. Particular attention is paid to the changes of attitude to drunkenness on the part of the population under the influence of political and economic circumstances. It is concluded that during the existence of a “dry law” access to alcohol has been used by radical forces in order to enhance the social hatred. Universal drunkenness of the common people was the realization of the revolutionary slogan of equality, including equal rights in obtaining “pleasure”.
European North of Russia, February revolution of 1917, Bolshevik power, White movement, folk culture, public drunkenness, social protest
M. Svidzinskaya The “RASMEKO case”: From the History of the Customs of
the Russian Bureaucracy and the Struggle against Bribery (1918)
Mariya S. Svidzinskaya – postgraduate student, Department of Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
This article based on unknown archival documents looks at one of the first celebrated cases of the Soviet justice – “RASMEKO case” (1918). It was case on charge of officials of the Central administrative board on supply by metals (RASMEKO) of National Economy High Council (VSNKh) with speculation and bribe extortion. The basic attention is paid to the economic, political and bureaucratic circumstances of occurrence of the case, preliminary investigation, carried on by the Department on struggle against speculation of the All-Russia Extreme Commission (VChK), proceeding in the Revolutionary Tribunal under the All-Russia Central Executive Committee (VTsIK), position and argumentation of the accused persons. Author comes to the conclusion that the real underlying reason of the celebrated show trial under the slogan of the struggle against speculation and bribery was the struggle of one officials against another officials for the opportunity to adjust “mutually advantageous cooperation” with the private businessmen.
RASMEKO, National Economy High Council (VSNKh), All-Russia Extreme Commission (VChK), Revolutionary Tribunal under the All-Russia Central Executive Committee (VTsIK), bureaucracy, businessmen, speculation, bribery
S. Sadovnikov About “The Love for Fathers’ Graves”: From the History of
Russian War Necropolises
Sergey I. Sadovnikov – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Research Institute of Development of Professional Education (Moscow)
The article examines using the historical and comparative analysis the experience of clearing battlefields from bodies of soldiers during the Great patriotic War of 1941–1945 and the Patriotic War of 1812. The main attention is drawn to the methods of clearing Borodino field from bodies of servicemen and dead horses in 1812, the experience of archaeological excavations and the search for lost individual and communal graves. The author dwells on the ideas of the outstanding architect and restorer N.I. Ivanov. A special attention is paid to the tragic destiny of the burial place of P.I. Bagration as a result of ideological campaigns of the Soviet period of the Russian history. The author makes a conclusion about the necessity of a complex solution of problems connected with keeping places of Russian military glory.
Patriotic War of 1812, Borodino field, P.I. Bagration, N.I. Ivanov, archaeological excavations, individual grave, communal grave
A. Kryzhan The Conflict on a Provincial Scale: How the Kursk Provincial
Department of Justice Did Not Execute the Order of the People’s Commissariat of Justice (1922–1924)
Anna V. Kryzhan – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of the Humanities, Regional Open Social Institute (Kursk)
This article is based on little-known archival documents, dealing with questions of mutual relation of the central power, local authorities and the provincial inhabitant (on an example of the events happened in Kursk province in 1922–1924). It focuses on the opposition of one family to local bodies of the Soviet power concerning the nationalized manor which belonged to members of this family before the revolution. It makes a conclusion that even when the Bolshevik state rigidly “normalized” an everyday life of citizens there was also a return process: inertia of a life, unwillingness of people to refuse habitual vital way were capable to influence actions of the power and even have to cause the conflict between its top and ground floors.
Kursk province, All-Russia Central Executive Committee (VTsIK), People’s Commissariat of Justice (Narkomyust), Provincial executive committee, Provincial department of justice, District land department, inhabitant, daily occurrence, conflict
Landmarks in Human History
A. Bykov Francis Lindley: A British Diplomat and the Russian Revolution
Alexander V. Bykov – Candidate of History, Director, Museum of Diplomatic corps (Vologda)
This article is based on the unpublished memoirs of the British charge d'affaires in Russia F.O. Lindley, reviews the activities of the British Embassy, ??the diplomatic representatives of Entente countries and F.O. Lindley himself in Russia in 1916–1918. The basic attention is given to sights of Lindley at events of revolutionary year 1917 and its estimations of key political figures of Russian revolution. It is concluded that Lindley has played a major role in Russian-British and Soviet-British relations and in the Entente intervention in the Northern Russia. His unpublished memoirs are informative and reliable historical source about «the Russian policy» of Great Britain in 1916–1918.
F.O. Lindley, World War I, February revolution of 1917, October revolution of 1917, Provisional government, Council of People’s Commissars, Entente, Great Britain, embassy, diplomacy, foreign policy, intervention, V.I. Lenin, A.F. Kerensky, G. Buchanan, Vologda
History on Screen
T. Nikonorova. The Film “Agony”: The Cinematographic Image of the Russian
Supreme Power on the Eve of the February Revolution
Tatiana N. Nikonorova – specialist, Russian State Archive of Contemporary History (Moscow)
The article analyzes the film “Agony” (1974) directed by E.G. Klimov. It focuses on the cinematographic image of the Russian supreme power. It is concluded that there are two possible understanding of the image: the representation of the crisis of Russian autocracy and the one of the contemporary for the authors Brezhnev stagnation. In the first case the author was quire accurate with historical stuff despite several preconceived interpretations. In the second case the communist authorities recognized themselves in pictures of corruption and decline of the pre-revolutionary Russia.
Film “Agony”, director E.G. Klimov, Russian imperia, Russian autocracy, Nicholas II, Brezhnev stagnation
A. Kostrov The Film “Schism” as a Mirror of the Russian Orthodox Church
Reform in the middle of the XVII c.
Alexander V. Kostrov – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Modern Russian History, Irkutsk State University
The article analyzes the historical film “Schism” (2011) directed by N.N. Dostal. It concern problems of historical process reconstruction in the cinema. The main point is devoted to cinematographic images of political and church powerful men of Russia in the middle of the XVII c. It is concluded that these images are historically accurate and they form correct impression about the Russian history, the Russian Orthodoxy, reform of the Russian church, the Schism and Old Belief.
Film «Schism», N.N. Dostal, Russian Orthodox church, Russian Orthodoxy, church reform, Schism, Old Belief
P. Marchenya, S. Razin “Empire” and “Strife” in Modern Russian Studies
Pavel P. Marchenya – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Research and Study Center “New Russia. History of Post-soviet Russia”, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
Sergey Yu. Razin – Senior Instructor, Institute for the Humanities and
Informational Technologies (Moscow)
The authors review the collected articles “The People and the Power in the Russian strife” (Moscow, 2010) and analyze the results of the roundtable discussions. The authors consider the study “Empires” and “Strifes” to be an essential problem of the field of Russian studies. The authors offer a conceptual scheme, linking periodically repetitive systemic crises of the Russian state and society (“Russian strifes” and “Russian revolutions”) and the character of Russia as an Empire. The interaction of the People and of the Power is considered as the main factor determining the emergence, progression and overcoming of Strife. The “Empire” is interpreted as a special form of the unity of the Power and the People, having its strength reserve, defense mechanisms and ways of providing for civilization identity as well as sociocultural continuity.
Russia, empire, strife, people, power, Russian studies
M. Kail Priesthood against Kingdom: A New View on the Relationship
Between the Church and Secular Authorities in Revolutionary Russia
Maxim V. Kail – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of History, Smolensk State University
In article is analyzed M.A. Babkin’s fundamental monography «Priesthood and the Kingdom (Russia, beginning ÕÕ century – 1918): Researches and materials» (Ì., 2011), devoted to studying of position of the Russian Orthodox church in the Russian empire in a context of historical and theological problem of priesthood–kingdom. The book is considered in the light of modern discussions about destinies of Orthodoxy during a revolutionary era of beginning of ÕÕ c. and search of methodological approaches by church and secular historiography. Its potential in dethronement of some myths about state-church relations, role of church hierarchy and clergy in revolutionary events is marked. The book is estimated as an important step to studying of history of the Orthodoxy.
M.A. Babkin, historiography, Russian Orthodox church, Russian autocracy, Nicholas II, February revolution of 1917
N.Eregina About the Benefit from reading Old Books and the Harm from
Natalia T. Eregina – Doctor of History, Senior Lecturer, Head of Department of History and Philosophy, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy
In the article the book by historian A.A. Ilyukhov “Prostitution in Russia from the XVII century till 1917” (Moscow, 2007) is analyzed. The main attention is drawn to the author’s inaccurate appraisals of the books of the Russian researchers of XIX c., to his debatable interpretations of some events of the World history of medicine and problems of cultural science. The contents of the book is evaluated as a repeating of the well-known facts, which were analyzed in detail in the Russian literature of XIX – the beginning of XX cc.
A.A. Ilyukhov, historiography, prostitution, venereal illnesses, history of medicine
M. Belov The Pre-Revolutionary Life of S.M. Budenny: B.V. Sokolov’s
Fables and Historical Facts
Mikhail Yu. Belov – postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Faculty of Social Sciences, Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University (Saint-Petersburg)
The article analyzes the book by B.V. Sokolov “Budennyi. The Red Myurat” (Moscow, 2007) – a new biography of the famous soviet military leader. A narrow source basis and the author’s historical incompetence – these obvious lacks of the book are shown on an example of the facts from the pre-revolutionary life of S.M. Budenny (his social origin and status, family, service in the Russian army, military education). It is concluded, that instead of a scientific investigation of Budenny’s biography the author of the book retells well-known sources with mistakes and thinks out new fables.
B.V. Sokolov, historiography, S.M. Budenny, Don region, Russian army, cavalry, biography