CONTENTS, AUTHORS, SUMMARIES
À. Borisov The study of Yakuts population changes in the XIX c.
Andrian A. Borisov – Doctor of History, Senior researcher, Institute for Humanities and Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
This article based on documents of the central and local archives, for the first time in domestic history, summarizes the data about population dynamics of Yakuts over a 250-year time span. Special attention is given to XIX c., when there was significant population growth. It was connected with «the Malthusian trap» in which this population growth began to exceed the available resources. It is concluded, that the demographic crisis of the Yakuts in the middle of XIX c. is directly connected to their available means.
Demographics, Yakuts, population changes, resources, demographic crisis
E. Bakaeva Ethnic specifics of Kalmyk Buddhism
Elza P. Bakaeva – Doctor of History, Senior lecturer, Deputy Director of science, Kalmyk Institute for Humanities of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article, based on field studies and literature, investigates the peculiarities of the images of the divinity Tsagan aav/avga as well as the tradition of special sacral symbols. Special attention is given to the correlation of orkimdzhi symbols, in the Kalmyk culture, with the symbolism of the ancient system of kin markers that was reflected in the headdress of the healer representing the clan of khans. Conclusions are drawn about the archaic origins of the specific characteristics of Kalmyk Buddhism and the preservation of the ancient oirat traditions in the Kalmyk culture.
Buddhism, Kalmyks, culture, ritual, sacral symbol, ethnic groups, ethnology
E. Tsydenov The cult of thirteen northern noyons in Buryat shamanism
Enkhe M. Tsydenov – Postgraduate student, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article based on archival documents and field research for the first time addresses the cult of 13 northern “noyons” (lords) in modern Buryat shamanism. Particular attention is paid to defining the place of the 13 northern lords in the hierarchy of the shamanic pantheon, and to describing Buryat ritual “tailagan” in their honor. It is concluded that the cult of 13 northern lords has a very important place in modern Buryat shamanism. The modern shamans believe them to be the protectors of all the inhabitants of the Baikal region, the supreme deities of ethnical Buryatia, while the cult practices are seen as specific rituals, which bring together the Buryat people.
Buryats, Baikal, shamanism, cult, “noyon” (lord), “tailagan”
D. Muzraeva The evolution of written Buddhist collections in Kalmykia
Deliash N. Muzraeva – Candidate of Philology, Senior lecturer, Senior researcher, Department of Written Monuments and Buddhology, Kalmyk Institute for Humanities of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article based on archival documents and field research, addresses the various stages of the formation of Buddhist written collections in Kalmykia. Special attention is given to library, museum, and private collections of the Republic Kalmykia, which for the larger part has not been researched or documented before. It is concluded that there is a relative continuity of the traditions of reading and copying of canonical Buddhist texts and adaptation of tradition to new conditions such as the war on religion in USSR between 1920–1970s, the exile of Kalmyks between 1943–1957s, and emigration to Europe and the USA.
Kalmykia, Buddhism, written sources, collections, library, museum
L. Molchanov The “White” Siberia: role of wire and propaganda
agencies (1918 – 1920)
Leonid A. Molchanov – Doctor of History, Professor of the Department of Source Studies, Institute for History and Archives of the RSUH
Based on previously unknown documents, the article looks at the activities of wire and propaganda agencies of the anti-Bolshevik regimes in Siberia during the Civil War of 1918–1920. The main focus is on the organization of those agencies and the attempts of the Siberian “white” governments to use those agencies for establishing a monopoly on getting, commenting, and spreading information. It is concluded that those agencies played a main part in the manipulation of public opinion, hoverer theó were not able to mobilize the Siberian population in the struggle against Bolshevism.
Russian Civil War, Siberia, A. Kolchak, press, telegraph, wire agency, propaganda
E. Zarmakova The high school of Buryatia during the Great Patriotic War:
material and technical basis
Elena S. Zarmakova – Lecturer, Department of Management, Marketing and Commerce, Eastern Siberian State Technological University (Ulan-Ude)
This article, based on little-known documents of the National Archive of The Republic of Buryatia, discusses high school activity in Buryatia between 1941 and 1945. The main focus is on the material and technical basis of the high school, its financing and supply, schools’ number dynamics, and the material conditions of the teachers and schoolchildren. It is concluded that the high school of Buryatia did not have the snecessary material and technical basics for normal activity between 1941 and 1945. However during these hard war times the high school of Buryatia not only survived but made strives for further development of high education in general as well as of its national component.
Buryatia, Great Patriotic War, high school, national school, financing, supply, materials and technical basis, general education
V. Sanchirov The study of toponymy of the Oirats and the Kalmyks
(XVII – XVIII cc.)
Vladimir P. Sanchirov– Candidate of History, Leading researcher, History and Archeology Department, Kalmyk Institute for Humanities of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article which for the first time looks at toponyms “the solitary tree on the Or’ river”, is based on the Oirat historical work “The History of Kho-Urlyuk”, archive documents, and the works by the Ucranian poet T. Shevchenko. It is concluded that it was the name of a place in the south of the Ural Mountains, which played a large part in the history of the Oirats and the Kalmyks in XVII–XVIII cc.
Oirats, Kalmyks, Kazakhs, Or river, Ural Mountains, toponym, T. Shevchenko
D. Ispovednikov The participation of China in the Civil War in Siberia
Dmitry Yu. Ispovednikov – Postgraduate student, Department of Archaeography, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article, based on previously unknown documents, looks at the participation of Republic of China in the Civil War in Siberia between 1917 and 1921. Particular attention is paid to the conflict situations in the border areas (right-of-way of Chinese East Railway, basins of the Songhua and Amur rivers) and the activities of general L. Khorvat. It is concluded that China’s policy in the region significantly complicated the work of Omsk’s and Chita’s anti-Bolshevik governments.
Russian Civil War, White Movement, China, Chinese East Railway, Amur river, L. Khorvat
L. Serkovskaya Siberia in Prague: overview of the guide “Collection of Russian
Foreign historical archive in Prague”
Lubov V. Serkovskaya – Postgraduate student, Department of History and Organization of Archives, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
This article analyzes documents concerning the history of Siberia, preserved in the State Archive of Russian Federation, in the State Archive of region of Irkutsk, and abroad. Special attention is given to the archival collections where the least explored archival materials concerning the study of Siberia are preserved. It is concluded that Russian scientists should pay more attention to documents on the history of Siberia and Siberian “regionality” (“oblastnichestvo”) because these questions take on a special significance at present.
Siberia, “regionality” (“oblastnichestvo”), I. Serebrennikov, I. Yakushev, study of local lore, Russian Foreign historical archive in Prague
Landmarks in Human History
I. Bedulina, V. Moiseev Vladimir Ogorodnikov and Boris Kubalov: two
historians-archivists’ Siberian pages of life and cooperation
Irina P. Bedulina – Candidate of History, Head of Historical and Cultural Heritage Department, Irkutsk Regional State Universal Scientific Library named I. Molchanov-Sibirsky
Vladimir V. Moiseev – Candidate of History, Senior lecturer, Department of Human Resource Management, Siberian Academy of Public Service (Novosibirsk)
Using previously unpublished archival documents, the article address the role of two historians and archivists Vladimir I. Ogorodnikov and Boris G. Kubalov in the organization and formation of the archival service of the Irkutsk region in the 1920s. The article focuses on eliminating the distortions and inaccuracies which were made earlier in other publications, where the merits of these scientists for establishing the first state archival institution of Angara land were not correctly evaluated. It is concluded that these two historians and archivists played a unique role in the organization and formation of the archival service of East Siberia, which have contributed to the culture and historical science of Siberia.
Siberia, Irkutsk region, V. Ogorodnikov, B. Kubalov, historiography, archival service, study of local lore
I. Gordeeva Mubaraksha Gadelshin: Vaisov sect member’s conscientious
Irina A. Gordeeva – Candidate of History, Senior lecturer, Department of Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article addresses the fate of M. Gadelshin, a member of “Vaisov Holy Regiment” (one of the Muslim sects), who refused to participate in military service in 1906. The main focus is on the ideology and motivation for the objection among the participants of the Vaisi movement, as well as the overlaps between protest activity of the Vaisi sect and some other Russian religious and social movements of the modern period (including the “Tolstoyans”). It concludes, that the phenomenon of the Vaisi movement was one of the historical forerunnesr of the contemporary pacifist movement.
Muslim sect, “Vaisov Holy Regiment”, M. Gadelshin, compulsory military service, conscientious objections, Russian army, pacifism, “Tolstoyans”
History on Screen
T. Nokonorova Film “Agony”: cinematographic image of the Siberian peasant
Tatiana N. Nikonorova – Specialist, Russian State Archive of Contemporary History
The article analyzes the film “Agony” (1974) directed by E. Klimov. It focuses on the cinematographic images of the Siberian peasant G. Rasputin as acted by A. Petrenko. It is concluded that, despite some artistic exaggerations, on the whole, this cinematographic image is historically accurate as it is based on the recollections of Rasputin’s contemporaries.
Film “Agony”, director E. Klimov, G. Rasputin, Siberia, A. Petrenko
V. Khokhryakov Tibet: an excursus inside and outside
Vadim V. Khokhryakov – Postgraduate student, Department of Russian Literature, Saint-Petersburg State University
This article analyzes “Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation” (St. Petersburg, 2010) S.L Kuzmin. The book looks at the history of painful relationships between China and Tibet back to ancient times, as well as the socio-cultural development in Tibet in XX c. S. Kuzmin pays special attention to China’s expansion northwards and studies the legal aspects of the Chinese rule over Tibet, given that the annexation is being scrutinised in terms of international law. The official role of Beijing (rooted in the ancient Chinese doctrine of global power) and Dalai Lama is interpreted by Kuzmin in his own way, bearing the stamp of euroasianism (“evraziystvo”). Discussing the threat of the disappearing of the Mongol-Tibetan civilization, Kuzmin formulates the crucial question: which is more crucial, human rights or cultural diversity?
Tibet, China, Dalai-Lama, human rights, Tibet-Mongol civilization
T. Uvarova The ethnological expert evaluation in the researching of small
indigenous nations of Northern Russia, Siberia and Far East
Tatiana B. Uvarova – Candidate of History, Senior researcher, Department of History, Institute of Scientific Information in Social Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences
The article reviews the book by N.I. Novikova and O.O. Zvidennaya “The Udegeytsy: The Hunters and Gatherers of river Bikin (Ethnological expert evaluation 2010)” (Moscow, 2010), which represents the ethnological expert evaluation in the research of small indigenous nations of Russia. It is concerned with the territorial unity of the Udegeytsy in Bikin river basin (Primorye Territory) and their traditional way of life in the past and present, the traditional picture of the world, and the demographic situation in the region.
Udegeytsy, Primorye territory, river Bikin, small indigenous nations, traditional way of life, ethnological expert evaluation
K. Orlova The completion of many years’ of work on the history of Kalmykia
Keemya V. Orlova – Doctor of History, Professor, Centre for the Researches of the Culture of Siberia of RSUH
The article reviews a 3-volume collection “The Kalmyk History from ancient times till our days” (Elista, 2009), which describes the life of Kalmyks from the time when their ancestors (the Oirats) lived on the lands of Dzungaria and Western Mongolia. The 1-st volume is devoted to the ethnic history of Oirats, the Kalmyk people, and their joining to Russia. The 2-nd volume considers the history of Kalmykia from the end of XIX till XX cc. The 3-rd volume portrays the culture of the people of Kalmykia. The work is written on the basis of new studies by Russian and foreign researchers, and makes a great contribution to Russian historical science.
Kalmyks, Oirats, tradition, culture, historiography
M. Svidzinskaya The study of the life and death of the Siberian «experienced
pilgrim» G.E. Rasputin-Novykh
Mariya S. Svidzinskaya – postgraduate student, Department of Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article analyses the book by A.P. and D.A. Kotsyubinsky «Grigoriy Rasputin: secret and visible» (St. Petersburg, 2003), dedicated to the life and death of Grigoriy E. Rasputin. The methodology of the research was formulated by the authors as “combined historical-psychological analysis”. The authors designed a serious methodological perspective of the scientific research on Rasputin from a position of personality discourse, irrespective of “fact” biography of the “monk”. The article concludes that the authors couldn’t deviate from the “space of the special effects”, that has historically formed in the context of the “Rasputin” historiography. Confidence in the groundless “hypotheses” and inattentive respect towards the historical sours are the principal shortcomings of the book.
G. Rasputin, historiography, life history, discourse, cultural environment, personal choice, personal strategy, conspiracy