E. Kamaeva City councils of Saratov province’s uyezd cities: officials and working efficiency (1870s – 1914)
Ekaterina E. Kamaeva – candidate of History, social studies instructor, Volgograd Social Studies Teachers’ College
This article is based on previously unknown documents from the State Archive of the Saratov oblast. For the first time ever, it is an analysis of the correlation between the official staff of executive power organizations in the Saratov province’s uyezd cities and effectiveness of their work. It focuses on the factors that decrease the working efficiency of the city councils. The author concluded that in the post-reformed Russia the official staff of city councils and their efficiency provided a success in solution of municipal problems as well as a prestige of these self-regulating executive institutions.
Saratov province, self-government, city duma, city council, city-councilor, member of the city duma, municipal economy, city finances
K. Solovyov Constitutional revolution of the Cadet Party: from theory to practice
(April – July, 1906)
Kirill A. Solovyov – candidate of History, senior lecturer, Department of Modern history of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article analyses the tactics and activities of the Constitutional-Democratic Party (Cadets) at the time of the First Duma. It is based on archival documents, political essays, and memoirs. The author focuses on the negotiations between the leaders of the Duma, opposition, and government officials regarding the formation of parliamentary government, as well as on the political mood of the top Russian officials in April–July 1906. It is concluded that the public opinion, which was formed by the Cadets, had a large influence on the government. As a result, the government became more amenable to compromise with the Duma, and made the constitutional revolution in June, 1906 possible.
1905–1907 Russian Revolution, Russian autocracy, State Duma, Constitutional-Democratic Party (Cadets), Russian liberalism, P. Milyukov, constitutional revolution
A. Bakhturina The re-unification of Uniats with the Orthodoxy: The policy of the
Russian authorities in Eastern Galicia in autumn of 1914
Alexsandra Yu. Bakhturina – doctor of History, professor, Department of History of State institutions and Public organizations, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article deals with the religious policy of the Russian military and civil authorities in Eastern Galicia in the autumn of 1914. Using documents from the Sinod archives, the author analyses archbishop Evlogiy’s activities, the interaction of the Russian authorities in solving religious issues, and the influence of the Russian nationalists on the religious policy of the Russian authorities. In autumn of 1914, in order to preserve stability on the home front, the Russian authorities, together with its military leaders, stopped any attempts by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian nationalists to speed up the process of re-unification of Uniats with the Orthodoxy.
World War I, Eastern Galicia, Russian Orthodox Church, Uniate Church, archbishop Evlogiy, V. Bobrinskiy
O. Erokhina The Peasant Land Bank and the liquidation of the German's
landownership in the Don Cossack Oblast (1915–1916)
Olga V. Erokhina – candidate of History, senior lecturer, Department of History and Theory of Social development, Uryupinsk branch of Volgograd State University
This article is based on little-known documents from the State Archive of the Rostov oblast. For the first time in historiography, the author analyzes the activities of the Peasant Land Bank during the anti-German campaign during World War I. The author focuses on the implementation of “liquidation” laws in the Don Cossack Oblast, the involvement of the Don branch of the Bank in the liquidation of the German landownership, and on the pricing and sale of the German colonists’ land. It is concluded that the Peasant Land Bank had a low working efficiency and played an insignificant role in the Russian government’s fight against “German domination” in the agrarian sector.
World War I, Don Cossack Oblast, German colonists, landownership, anti-German campaign, alienation of property
E. Bulyulina From history of the local postal offices of Tsaritsyn province
(1917 – the beginning of 1920s)
Elena V. Bulyulina – candidate of History, senior lecturer, Department of Documentation Science and Official communication linguistics, Volgograd State University
The author, using previously unpublished archival documents, considers the problem of establishing the Lower Volga Region’s local postal offices (1917 – the beginning of 1920s). The research focuses on the history of acts of “sabotage” by the postal telegraph workers who protested against the Bolshevik rise to power from October 1917 to February 1918, as well as the activities of local postal offices, and their reorganization due to the political and economical situation. Because of the country's economical underdevelopment, this system of communication was unable to fully satisfy the needs of the state and its citizens.
Tsaritsyn, Tsaritsyn province, communication, post, telegraph, telephone, governing body
N. Kulinich The Chinese Working Youth Theatre in the Soviet Far East (1930s)
Natalya G. Kulinich – candidate of History, senior lecturer, Department of Philosophy and Culturology, Pacific State University (Khabarovsk)
The article, based on previously unused documents of the Far Eastern Regional Committee of the Bolshevik Party, deals with the history of the creation and activity of the Chinese Working Youth Theatre (TRAM) in Vladivostok. The article focuses on the collective efforts of the troupe to generate a synthetic model for a new revolutionary theater by combining the elements of traditional Chinese and European theaters with the ideas of socialist realism, and the intervention of party authorities in this creative pursuit. It is concluded that party authorities considered the Chinese TRAM to be nothing more than a tool for the political education of Chinese immigrants.
Soviet Far East, Vladivostok, Chinese immigrants, Chinese traditional theatre, Chinese Working Youth Theatre, political education
K. Aleksandrov From history of the Committee for the Liberation of the
Russian Peoples’ activity in Norway (1944–1945)
Kirill M. Aleksandrov – candidate of History, senior staff scientist, Encyclopedia Department, Philological Institute of Saint-Petersburg State University
This article analyses unknown pages of history of the Committee for the Liberation of the Russian Peoples’ activity in Norway on the basis of unique archival documents from the Russian, German, and US archives. It focuses on the work of Colonel G. Zverev and other officers of the Vlasov Army in 1944–1945 regarding the recruitment of Soviet prisoners of war from Norwegian camps for the Armed Forces of the Committee (Vlasov Army). It is concluded that three fourth of the Soviet prisoners of war in Norway either remained indifferent to the appeals of Vlasov’s representatives, or treated them with hostility. Those who did agree to join the Vlasov Army, the German Command was already unable to use on the front lines.
World War II, Norway, Soviet prisoners of war, concentration camp, Committee for the Liberation of the Russian Peoples, A. Vlasov, G. Zverev, recruitment
Landmarks in Human History
Yu. Pelevin Stepan Khalturin, “Narodnaya Volya”, and the attempt on the life of
Alexander II in the Winter palace
Yuriy A. Pelevin – candidate of History, professor,
Culturology faculty, State Academic University of the Humanities (Moscow)
This article is dedicated to the unsuccessful attempt on the life of Alexander II in the Winter Palace on February 5th of 1880. This is the first time in Russian historical research that the preparation for this act of terrorism is researched and explored in such detail, based on little-known materials and archival documents. The article focuses on the ideological, high-minded causes and moral aspects of the revolutionist-terrorists, as well as the functioning terrorist organization “Narodnaya Volya” (“The People’s Will”). The article explains why the political police forces could not prevent this act of terrorism. It is concluded, that the secret political police was unprepared for conflict with this underground terrorist organization, and that it was only coincidence and chance that led to the tragic events.
Revolutionary “narodnik” (populist) movement, “Narodnaya Volya” (“The People’s Will”), terrorism, political police, S. Khalturin, A. Mikhaylov, Alexander II
O. Kvasov Mariya Fedorova – terrorist and victim of terror
Oleg N. Kvasov – candidate of History, senior lecturer, head of the Department of History, Political Science and Culture, Voronezh State Forestry Academy
The article is the first to consider the attempt on the life of Voronezh governor M.M. Bibikov. The research is based on the analysis of the documents stored in the regional and central archives. M. Fedorova, a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, made an assassination attempt on April 23, 1908 in Voronezh. The article focuses on the local underground organizations of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in Voronezh, their practice of revolutionary terror, the personality of M. Fedorova, and the preparation and attempt of the terrorist against the governor and the causes for its failure. It concludes that the effectiveness of the terrorist actions was reduced due to an internal crisis in the underground Socialist Revolutionary Party organizations.
Voronezh province, political police, Socialist Revolutionary Party, revolutionary terrorism, M. Fedorova, M. Bibikov
K. Solovyov “From the Carpathians to the Don?” or “From the Carpathians to the
Kamchatka?”: On the studying of Galicia Russian population’s destinies
Kirill A. Solovyov – candidate of History, lecturer, Department of History and Theory of Historical Science, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article analyzes the second edition of N.M. Pashaeva’s book “Studies on the History of the Russian Movement in Galichina in XIX–XX centuries” (Moscow, 2007), which is devoted to the struggle of Russian minority in Austria and Poland to gain its national rights. This book is considered the first attempt at the generalization of the materials on the history of the Galician Russian population. The article focuses on the sources and the author’s approaches to the topic. Both merits and demerits of the study are pointed out. On the whole, the book is evaluated as a crucial step in the study of this extremely important and promising subject.
N. Pashaeva, historiography, Galichina (Eastern Galicia), Union of Brest-Litovsk, Austria, Poland, Ukraine, Russian minority, national rights, political struggle
S. Karpenko, V. Chicheryukin-Meyngardt The Crimea during the Civil war:
Historical panorama by brothers Zarubins
Sergey V. Karpenko – candidate of History, senior lecturer, Department of Contemporary history of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
Vladimir G. Chicheryukin-Meyngardt – candidate of History, teaching methods specialist, Methodical Department of RSUH
In the context of the modern study of the Russian Civil War, the article analyses the second edition of monograph by A.G. Zarubin and V.G. Zarubin “Without winners: From the history of the Civil War in the Crimea” (Simferopol’, 2008). It is noted that the monograph has obvious merits such as a wide source basis composed of little-known archival documents, newspaper articles, and memoirs; concrete, comprehensive and impartial account of events; and a detailed analysis of economic, social, political and spiritual factors, which had an influence on the development of the Civil War events in the Crimea during 1917–1920.
A. Zarubin, V. Zarubin, historiography, Russian Civil War, intervention, Bolshevism, White movement, Crimea
S. Karpenko Book Review: Markovchin V.V. Odyssey of Ataman Annenkov. Kursk, 2010.
Sergey V. Karpenko – candidate of History, senior lecturer, Department of Contemporary history of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
N. Antonenko To studying of political history of the Russian Anti-Bolshevik
Natalya V. Antonenko – candidate of History, senior lecturer, head of State and Municipal management Department, Michurinsk State Agrarian University
The article analyzes the monograph by O.K. Antropov “The Russian emigration in search of political association (1921–1939)” (Astrakhan, 2008) based on modern approaches to studying the history of Russian Anti-Bolshevik immigration. It is noted that the monograph comprehensively creates associations between various political forces of Russians abroad. It also highlights the major factors influencing the unifying process such as the activity of political leaders, working out and propagation of ideological doctrines, the competition between parties and organizations, and the active struggle against the Bolshevik power in Russia and «world communism».
O. Antropov, historiography, Russian Anti-Bolshevik emigration, political straggle, political organization
N. Kats Movers and Shakers of Russian Culture in the USA: New Stories of
Naum G. Kats – professor, Departments of History and Modern Languages, Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, USA)
The author analyzes a book by J. Horowitz “Artists in Exile: How Refugees from Twentieth-Century War and Revolution Transformed the American Performing Arts” (N.Y., 2008). In the article it is noted that J. Horowitz based his publication on a variety of rare primary and secondary sources. The American researcher was able to follow the most important moments in the lives of Russian emigrants, whose creativity in the performing arts enriched and advanced the development of XX century’s music, ballet, theatre and cinematography in the United States.
J. Horowitz, historiography, Russian emigration, culture, art, G. Balanchine, I. Stravinsky, S. Rakhmaninov
D. Vasilev The new study on Kaliningrad oblast history
Dmitry V. Vasilev – graduate student, Department of Contemporary history of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
In the context of modern Russian historical research of postwar USSR, the article analyses the monograph by Yu.V. Kostyashov “The Secret history of the Kaliningrad oblast: Essays of 1945–1956” (Kaliningrad, 2009). It is noted that the monograph is based on documents from former secret funds of the federal and oblast archives. Yu. Kostyashov makes a clear detailed analysis of the most concrete problems in the postwar history of the Kaliningrad (Kenigsberg) oblast (part of Eastern Prussia, former German territory). Topics include the deportation of German population, the settlement of the oblast with the Russians, the creation and activity of the oblast government bodies, the formation of the local CPSU and Soviet officialdom, economic hardship, and the ideological work of local CPSU apparatus.
Kaliningrad (Kenigsberg) oblast, Eastern Prussia, German population, deportation, settlement, local Soviet administrative apparatus, local CPSU apparatus, officialdom, supply, propaganda